Volume 8, Issue 2, June 2019, Page: 20-33
An Overview of Green Buildings Potential in Palestine
Nour Said, Renewable Energy and Sustainability Program, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine
Husain Alsamamra, Renewable Energy and Sustainability Program, Al-Quds University, Jerusalem, Palestine
Received: May 18, 2019;       Accepted: Jun. 18, 2019;       Published: Jul. 1, 2019
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijrse.20190802.11      View  634      Downloads  93
Palestine is a developing country of a different nature from that of the developing countries of the world. It is a state under occupation that does not have many natural resources. It is prohibited from exploiting its natural resources such as water, salt, and natural gas, and even producing or importing electricity, occupation is the total importer of fossil fuels, adding 87% of its electricity needs. The design of green energy-saving buildings, combined with the exploitation of renewable energy resources, especially solar energy, with 3000 sunshine a year and an average of solar radiation of 5.4 kW h/m2/day, may be the only way out of the current situation. The main objective of this work is to provide a review of the green building sector in Palestine in terms of research issued, governmental and non-governmental bodies concerned with the development of this field, in addition to the most important projects implemented as green building in Palestine, and finally discussing the most important obstacles hindering the adoption of green building as a long-term sustainable development strategy. Our urban heritage has an architectural and construction style that meets the requirements of sustainable construction. However, the rapid and dramatic change in the construction sector, in terms of building materials and construction, has increased the energy burden. Throughout Palestine there are seven climatic zones, which in itself is a challenge to the design of green construction, in addition to low public awareness of the concept of sustainable construction. The study concluded that, the absence of legislations and laws binding the minimum requirements of green building are among the most important obstacles to the adoption of sustainable construction as a long-term strategy to achieve the desired independence in the energy sector, in addition to the non-use of financial tools to stimulate investment in the green building sector in Palestine.
Palestine, Green Building, Climatic Zones, Natural Resources, Sustainable Development, Building Materials, Construction Sector
To cite this article
Nour Said, Husain Alsamamra, An Overview of Green Buildings Potential in Palestine, International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy. Vol. 8, No. 2, 2019, pp. 20-33. doi: 10.11648/j.ijrse.20190802.11
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
UNEP, Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication, United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), 2011 https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/index.php?page=view&type=400&nr=126&menu=35
Brundtland G. H, Report of World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED): Our Common Future, A Report Prepared for the General Assembly of the United Nations, United Nations, 1987 http://www.un-documents.net/our-common-future.pdf
Kubba S. Handbook of green building design and construction, Sam Kubba, 2012. https://www.sciencedirect.com/book/9780123851284/handbook-of-green-building-design-and-construction#book-info
Hodiri H. Assessing the Actual Performance of Green Buildings in Palestine: A Case Study (Master Thesis) Nablus, Palestine: An-Najah National University; 2018. https://repository.najah.edu/handle/20.500.11888/14171
Yudelson J. The Green Building Revolution; Island Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2008
Ries R, Bilec M. M, Needy K. L, Gokhan N. M. The Economic Benefits of Green Buildings: A Comprehensive Case Study. Eng. Econ. 2006, 51, 259–295.
GSA Public Buildings Service. Assessing Building Performance: A Post Occupancy Evaluation of 12 GSA Buildings Research; GSA Public Buildings Service, 2008. https://www.gsa.gov/cdnstatic/GSA_AssessGreen_white_paper.pdf
Kats G. Green Building Costs and Financial Benefits; Massachusetts Technology Collaborative: Boston, MA, USA, 2003.
Kats G. Greening Our Built World: Costs, Benefits, and Strategies; Island Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2010.
Torcellini P, Pless S, Deru M, Griffith B, Long N, Judkoff R. Lessons Learned from Case Studies of Six High-Performance Buildings; Technical Report NREL/TP-550-37542. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL): Golden, CO, USA, 2006. https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy06osti/37542.pdf
Menezes A. C, Cripps A, Bouchlaghem D, Buswell R. Predicted vs. actual energy performance of non-domestic buildings: Using post-occupancy evaluation data to reduce the performance gap. Appl. Energy 2012, 97, 355–364. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306261911007811?via%3Dihub
De Wilde P. The gap between predicted and measured energy performance of buildings: A framework for investigation. Autom. Constr. 2014, 41, 40–49. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S092658051400034X?via%3Dihub
USGBC Research Committee. A National Green Building Research Agenda; U.S. Green Building Council, 2008; Available online: https://www.usgbc.org/drupal/legacy/usgbc/docs/Archive/General/Docs3402.pdf
Burnett J. Costs and Benefits of Building Commissioning. Hong Kong Inst. Eng. Trans. 2008, 15, 9–16.
Cohen R, Standeven M, Bordass B, Leaman A. Assessing building performance in use 1: The Probe process. Build. Res. Inf. 2001, 29, 85–102. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09613210010008018
Bordass B, Cohen R, Standeven M, Leaman A. Assessing Building Performance in Use 3: Energy Performance of the Probe Buildings. Build. Res. Inf. 2001, 29, 114128.https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09613210010008036
Kats, G.; Alevantis, L.; Berman, A.; Mills, E.; Perlman, J. The Costs and Financial Benefits of Green Buildings. A Report to California’s Sustainable Building Task Force; U.S. Green Building Council, 2003; https://www.usgbc.org/drupal/legacy/usgbc/docs/News/News477.pdf
Yudelson J. Green Building A to Z: Understanding the Language of Green Building; New Society Publishers: Gabriola Islands, BC, Canada, 2007. https://scholar.google.com/scholar_lookup?title=The%20Green%20Building%20Revolution&author=J.%20Yudelson&publication_year=2008
Choi C. removing market barriers to green development: principles and action projects to promote widespread adoption of green development practices, J. Sustain. Real Estate 1 (2009) 107–138. https://www.scopus.com/home.uri URL: http://www.josre.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/12/removing-market-barriers-to-green-development-principles-and-action-projects-to-promote-widespread-adoption-of-green-development-practices. pdf
Bowman R., Wills J. Valuing Green: How Green Buildings Affect Property Values and Getting Valuation Method Right, Green Building Council of Australia, Sydney, 2008 https://www.gbca.org.au/docs/NSC0009_ValuingGreen.pdf
UNEP, Guidelines on Education Policy for Sustainable Built Environments, United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), 2010, https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/7997/-Guidelines%20on%20Education%20Policy%20for%20Sustainable%20Built%20Environments-2010993.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y
Helgeson J. F, Lippiatt B. C. Multidisciplinary life cycle metrics, and tools for green buildings, Integr. Environ. Assess. Manag. 5 (2009) 390–398, https://setac.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1897/IEAM_2008-069.1
Kibert C. j. Sustainable Construction: Green Building Design and Delivery, 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, USA, 2012. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=+author:C.%20j.%20Kibert
Laustsen J. Energy Efficiency Requirements in Building Codes, Energy Efficiency Policies for New Buildings, International Energy Agency (IEA), Paris, 2008 https://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/Building_Codes.pdf
Dwaikat L, Kherun A. 2016. “Green Buildings Cost Premium: A Review of Empirical Evidence.” Energy and Buildings 110: 396–403. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378778815303856
Cole R. J. Rating systems for sustainability, in V. Loftness, D. Haase (Eds.), Sustain. Built Environ. 1st ed., Springer, New York, 2013, pp. 464–477, https://link.springer.com/referencework/10.1007%2F978-1-4614-5828-9
Burnett J, Chau C, Lee W. Green buildings: how green the label? HKIE Trans. 12 (2005) 1–8, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1023697X.2005.10668014
U.S. Green Building, Council, U.S. green building council, Leadership. Energy Environ. Des. (2014), https://new.usgbc.org/leed
BREEAM, Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Methodology, 2016. www.breeam.org.
Madew R. The Dollars and Sense of Green Buildings. A Report for the Green Building Council of Australia, Green Building Council of Australia, https://www.gbca.org.au/resources/dollars-and-sense-of-green-buildings-2006-building-the-business-case-for-green-c/gbca.asp?sectionId=304
Torcellini P, Pless S, Deru M, Griffith B, Long N, Judkoff R. Lessons Learned from Case Studies of Six High-Performance Buildings (Technical Report NREL/TP-550-37542), National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 2006, https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy06osti/37542.pdf
Ries, R. Bilec, M. M. Needy, K. L. Gokhan, N. M. The economic benefits of green buildings: a comprehensive case study, Eng. Econ. 51 (2006) 259–295, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/00137910600865469
Juaidi A, Montoya FG, Ibrik Imad H, Manzano-Agugliaro F. An overview of renewable energy potential in Palestine. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2016; 65:943–60. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S136403211630380X?via%3Dihub
Alatawneh B, Germana M, Carrao R. Near Zero Energy House in Palestine: Identification of the Future Challenges 5th International Energy Conference – Palestine (IECP). 27th-28th January 2015. Conference Proceeding (pp.47-50).
Haj Hussian M. Courtyard concept: A sustainable strategy for the future housing buildings in Palestine, Conference: Sustainable Architecture & Urban Development "SAUD 2010"At Amman. July 2010, https:// www.researchgate.net /publication/258237440.
Salameh W. Towards Sustainable Construction Systems of External Walls of Buildings in The West Bank of Palestine (Master Thesis) Nablus, Palestine: An-Najah National University; 2012 https://repository.najah.edu/handle/20.500.11888/7418
Abdel Hadi M. Possibility of developing environmentally friendly residential buildings in Palestinian cities - A study case from the cities of Jenin and Ramallah (Master Thesis), Arabic language Thesis, Nablus, Palestine: An-Najah National University; 2013. https://repository.najah.edu/handle/20.500.11888/7449
Haj Hussian M, Barlet A, Baba M, Semidor C. Evaluation for Environmental Comfort Performance in the Palestinian Schools, PLEA 2016 Los Angeles - 36th International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture. Cities, Buildings, People: Towards Regenerative Environments https://www.researchgate.net/publication/308762434.
Saadeh B, Baba M. Evaluation Study of Green School Buildings in the West Bank, 5th International Energy Conference – Palestine (IECP). 27th-28th January 2015. Conference Proceeding, https:// www.researchgate.net /publication/272783015 https://repository.najah.edu/handle/20.500.11888/7450
Kitaneh R, Alsamamra H, Aljunaidi A. Modeling of wind energy in some areas of Palestine. Energy Convers Manag 2012; 62 (0):64–9 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196890412001926?via%3Dihub
Valipour M. Study of different climatic conditions to assess the role of solar radiation in reference crop evapotranspiration equations. Arch Agron Soil Sci 2015; 61 (5):679–94. https://www.scopus.com/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-84922236942&origin=inward&txGid=84d16a63d39f494291c503d51b7a3fc9
Palestine Higher Green Building Council, 2013. Green buildings Guidelines - State of Palestine. First ed. Ramallah, Palestine: Palestinian Engineers Association https://www.paleng.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/pgbc_manual.pdf
Applied Research Institute of Jerusalem, (2003). Climatic zoning for energy efficient buildings in the Palestinian territories (the West Bank and Gaza). ARIJ, Jerusalem. https://www.arij.org/files/admin/2003/2003%20climatic%20zoning%20for%20energy%20efficient%20buildings%20in%20the%20PT.pdf
Yaseen B. Renewable energy applications in Palestine. Palestinian energy and environment research center (pec)–energy authority, technical department, Palestine. In: Proceedings of the 2nd international conference for the Palestinian environment, Palestine; 2009.
Hasan A. Wind energy in the west bank and Gaza strip. RE 1992; 2 (6):637–9 https://www.scopus.com/record/display.uri?eid=2-s2.0-0027007396&origin=inward&txGid=ea3ad44777ca6187069ffed0f0c16a6a
Abu Hamed T, Flamm H, Azraq M. Re in the Palestinian territories: opportunities and challenges. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2012; 16 (1):1082–8 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032111004898?via%3Dihub
Abualkhair A. Electricity sector in the Palestinian territories: which priorities for development and peace? Energy Policy 2007; 35 (4):2209–30. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421506002795?via%3Dihub
Daud A-K, Ismail M. Design of isolated hybrid systems minimizing costs and pollutant emissions. RE 2012; 44:215–24 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148112000225?via%3Dihub
Ismail M, Moghavvemi M, Mahlia T. Analysis and evaluation of various aspects of solar radiation in the Palestinian territories. Energy Convers Manag 2013; 73:57–68. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196890413002239?via%3Dihub
Sancho J, Riesco J, Jimenez C, Sanchez de Cos M, Montero J, Lopez M. Atlas de radiacion solar en españa utilizando datos del saf de clima de eumetsat, Agencia Estatal de Meteorologia (AEMET), Ministerio de Agricultura, Alimentacion y Medio Ambiente del Gobierno de España.
Morrison GL, Litvak A, Condensed solar radiation database for Australia, Tech rep, University of New South Wales; 1999. http://users.tpg.com.au/t_design/papers/tmy99.pdf
Hernandez-Escobedo Q, Rodriguez-Garcia E, Saldana-Flores R, FernandezGarcia A, Manzano-Agugliaro F. Solar energy resource assessment in Mexican states along the Gulf of Mexico. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 2015; 43 (0):216–38. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032114008429?via%3Dihub
Abu-Hafeetha MF. Planning for solar energy as an energy option for Palestine (Master Thesis) Nablus, Palestine: An-Najah National University; 2009.
RIWAQ Records of Historic Buildings in Palestine, File I, Arabic language book, Palestine, 2006.
Palestinian Engineers Association, Palestine Higher Green Building Council, 2013 https://www.paleng.org/?p=417
Palestinian Code, Energy Efficient building Code, Ministry of Local Government, 2004 https://www.paleng.org/?p=1729
Palestinian Museum, Ramallah, Palestine https://palmuseum.wordpress.com/tag/leed/
The A. M. Qattan Foundation, Ramallah, Palestine http://qattanfoundation.org/en/qattan/about/building
SHTAYYA Green building, Nablus, Palestine, URL: https://www.dropbox.com/s/erzq94hswxesbyu/Synopsis%20-%20SHTAYYA%20Building.pdf?dl=0&fbclid=IwAR2GFqGjJ3UfkaATrtCsFKOTn8UP2hXzfXIpFFXd60PScgf-mSnh6OjV5eU
ShamsArd Design Studio, Ramallah, Palestine, https://www.shamsard.com/architecture
Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, General Population, Housing, and Establishment Census, 2017 Ramallah-Palestine.http://www.pcbs.gov.ps/Downloads/book2383.pdf
Hamdan “Folk architecture of Palestine” Albireh: Family reviving association, Arabic language book, 1996.
AlKhatib K. Zero Net Energy Buildings: Identification of the Future Challenges 5th International Energy Conference – Palestine (IECP). 27th-28th January 2015. Conference Proceeding (pp.126-128).
Browse journals by subject