Volume 6, Issue 4, July 2017, Page: 49-56
Sustainable Environmental Conservation in East Africa through Agroforestry Systems: A Case of the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania
Msafiri Yusuph Mkonda, Centre of Excellence for Soil Biology, College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing, China; Department of Physical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
Xinhua He, Centre of Excellence for Soil Biology, College of Resources and Environment, Southwest University, Chongqing, China; School of Plant Biology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Australia
Received: Jun. 17, 2017;       Accepted: Jun. 30, 2017;       Published: Jul. 26, 2017
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijrse.20170604.11      View  2428      Downloads  111
Sustainable conservation of any ecosystem needs a balance between resource utilization and management. The Eastern Arc Mountains (EAM) of East Africa which covers a large area more particularly in Tanzania needs such kind of balance for its sustainability. With potential biophysical resources such as fluvial, vertisols and xerosols soils with the annual rainfall exceeds 1200 mm per year, may attracts more degradation than conservation. This review aims to assess the influence of agroforestry and related farming systems in the intensification of sustainable conservation in the area. Thereby, we reviewed 39 peer reviewed publications from the data base and some secondary data to attain the goal. It is discernible that agroforestry has increased crop yields for over 50% in the area. However, the ongoing degradation threatens the sustainability of the EAM. Forest degradation will offset over 100 million tons of carbon that is stored in the EAM. Besides, environmental degradation will significantly affect the water sources that feed over 3.5 million people in the downstream. Then, the supply of water for Hydro-Electric Power, environmental requirements and agricultural activities in the downstream will be adequate affected. To curb the authentic and potential degradation, the Eastern Arc Mountains Conservation Endowment Funds (EAMCEF) is operational in the area. Norway is among the great funders of EAMCEF. Therefore, for the robustness of sustainable conservation in EAM, a collective effort from various stakeholders especially donors are needed.
Agroforestry Systems, Climate Change, Conservation, Degradation, East Africa
To cite this article
Msafiri Yusuph Mkonda, Xinhua He, Sustainable Environmental Conservation in East Africa through Agroforestry Systems: A Case of the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania, International Journal of Sustainable and Green Energy. Vol. 6, No. 4, 2017, pp. 49-56. doi: 10.11648/j.ijrse.20170604.11
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Boehm, S., Dabhi, S., 2009. Upsetting the Offset: Political Economy of Carbon Markets: http://mayflybooks.org/?page_id=21.
Burgess, T. M., Butynski, N., Cordeiro J et al., 2007. “The biological importance of the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania and Kenya,” Biological Conservation, vol. 134, no. 2.
Charles, R., Munishi, P. K., Nzunda F., 2013. Agroforestry as Adaptation Strategy under Climate Change in Mwanga District, Kilimanjaro, Tanzania. International Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 3 Iss. 11, PP. 29-38.
Ehardt, C. L., Jones, T. P., Butynski, T. M., 2005. Protective Status, Ecology and Strategies for Improving Conservation of Cercocebus sanjei in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. International Journal of Primatology 26 (3): 557-583 the need for sustainable adaptation measures.
Eriksen K. L., O’Brien, K., 2007. “Vulnerability, poverty and Climate Policy, vol. 7, pp. 337-352.
Eriksen, K. L., Aldunce, C. S., Bahinipati, R. D., Martins, J. I. Molefe, C. Nhemachena, O`’Brien, K., Olorunfemi, F. Park J., Sygna L., Ulsrud, K., 2011. “When not every response to climate change is a good one: Identifying principles for sustainable adaptation Climate and Development., Vol. 3, pp. 7-20.
Eriksen, K. L., Klein, K., Ulsrud, O. L., Nass L., O’Brien, K., 2008. “Climate change adaptation and poverty reduction: Key interactions and critical measures,” Report prepared for the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD). Oslo: University of Oslo.
Food and Agricultural Organisation, 2013. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2013: The Multiple Dimensions of Food Security, Rome.
FAOSTAT, d. Food and agricultural organization URL: http://faostat.fao.org/; (Accessed: 21.11.2016).
Hull, J., Burgess, N. D, Lovett, J. Mbilinyi, J., Gererch, R. E., 2009. Conservation of Deforestation across an elevational gradient in the Eastern Arc Mountain, Tanzania, Biological Conservation, 142.
Intergovernmental Pannel on Climate Change, 2014 a. Climate Change 2014 Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Field, C. B., V. R. Barros, Estrada, R. C. Genova, B. Girma, E. S. Kissel, A. N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P. R. Mastrandrea, and L. L. White (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York.
Intergovernmental Pannel on Climate Change, 2014 b. Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part B: Regional Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Barros, V. R., C. B. Field, D. Dokken M. D. Mastrandrea, K. J. Mach, T. E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K. L. Ebi, Y. O. Estrada, R. C Genova, B. Girma, E. S. Kissel, A. N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P. R. Mastrandrea, and L. L White (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
Jama, B., Kwesiga, F., Niang, A., 2006. Agroforestry innovations for soil fertility management in sub-Saharan Africa: Prospects and Challenges. In: Garrity, D., Okono, A., Grayson, M. and Parrott, S. (eds.). World Agroforestry into the Future World Agroforestry Centre. Nairobi. pp. 53-50.
Jama, B., Zeila, A., 2005. Agroforestry in the drylands of eastern Africa: a call to action. ICRAF Working Paper – no. 1. Nairobi: World Agroforestry Centre.
Mbwambo, J., Saruni, P., Massawe, G., 2013. Agroforestry as a solution to poverty in rural Tanzania. Lessons from Musoma Rural District, Mara Region, Tanzania. Kivukoni Journal Vol. 1 No. 2, 2013: 15-30.
Milledge, S. A. H., Gelvas, A. K., Ahrends, A., 2007. Forestry, Governance and National Development: Lessons learned from logging boom in Southern Tanzania. A Overview. TRAFFIC East/Southern Africa/Tanzania/ Development Partners Group/Ministry of Natural Resources of Tourism, Dar es Salaam.
Msikula, S. N., 2003. The economics of improved agroforestry systems for income, food security and biodiversity conservation in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. M. Sc. thesis, Management of Natural Resources for Sustainable Agriculture. Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro.119.
Mumbi, C., Marchant, R., Lane, P., 2014. Vegetation Response to Climate Change and Human Impacts in the Usambara Mountains. Hindawi Publishing Corporation Volume 2014, Article ID 240510, 12 pages.
Munishi, P. K, Shear, T. H., 2004. Carbon Storage in Afromontane Rain Forest of the Eastern Arch Mountain of Tanzania. Their Net Contribution to Atmospheric Carbon. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 16 (1): 78-93. U.S.A.
Nyadzi, R., Swai, M., Schueller, B., Gama, S. et al., 2006. “Adoption and Impact of Agroforestry Technologies on Rural Livelihoods in Southern Africa,” in proceeding of the second National Agroforestry and Environment Workshop Mbeya, Tanzania.
Padel, S., Smith, J., Smith, L. G., Vieweger, A., Wolfe, M. S., 2015. The role of agroecology in sustainable intensification. Report for the Land Use Policy Group Organic Research Centre, Elm Farm and Game & Wildlife Conservation Trust.
Pandey, D. N., 2007. “Multifunctional agroforestry systems in India; CIFOR, Bogor, Indonesia,” Current science., vol. 92, pp. 455-463.
Place, F., Prudencio, Y. C., 2006. Policies for improved land management in smallholder agriculture: The role for research in agroforestry and natural resource management. In: Garrity, D., Okono, A., Grayson, M. and Parrott, S. (eds.). World Agroforestry into the Future. World Agroforestry Centre. Nairobi. Pp. 71-78.
Reyes, T., 2008. Agroforestry systems for sustainable livelihoods and improved land management in the East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Shelukindo, H. B., Msanya, B. M., Semu, E., Mwango S, Singh, B. and Munishi, P. K. T., 2014. Characterization of Some Typical Soils of the Miombo Woodland Ecosystem of Kitonga Forest.
Reserve, Iringa, Tanzania: Physicochemical Properties and Classification. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. Vol: 224-234.
Smith, C., 2008. Farming Trees, Banishing Hunger. How an agroforestry programme is helping smallholders in Malawi to grow more food and improve their livelihoods. Nairobi: World Agroforestry Centre.
Smith, J., 2010. Agro forestry: Reconciling production with protection of the environment. A synopsis of Research literature. Organic Research Centre. Elm Farm, p.24.
Snelder, D. J., Klein M., Schuren, S. H. G., 2007. “Farmers’ preferences, uncertainties and opportunities in fruit-tree cultivation in Northeast Luzon,” Agroforestry Syst., vol.71.
Thierfelder, C., Cheesman, S., Rusinamhodzi, L., 2012. A comparative analysis of conservation agriculture systems: benefits and challenges of rotations and intercropping in Zimbabwe. Field Crop Res. 137, 237–250.
Tilman, D., Balzer, C., Hill, J., Befort, B. L., 2011. Global food demand and the sustainable intensification of agriculture. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A.
Thorlakson, T., 2011. “Reducing subsistence farmers` vulnerability to climate change: the potential contributions of agroforestry in western Kenya”, Occasional Paper Nairobi: World Agroforestry Centre, paper 16. P. 76.
Thornton, P. K., Jones, P. G., Ericksen, P. J., Challinor, A. J., 2011. Agriculture and food systems in sub-Saharan Africa in a 4 degrees C+ world. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 369, 117–136.
Ulsrud, K., Sygna, L., O`Brien, K., 2008. “More than Rain: Identifying sustainable pathways for Climate adaptation and Poverty Reduction’. Published by Development Fund, Norway, p. 68
United Republic of Tanzania, 2014. Review of food and agricultural policies in the United Republic of Tanzania. MAFAP (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Agricultural Programme) Country Report Series, FAO, Rome, Italy
United Republic of Tanzania, 2006. Derema Forest Corridor: East Usambara Mountains. Resettlement Action Plan for farm plots displaced for biodiversity conservation in the Derema Forest Corridor. Prepared for consideration of compensation funding by the World Bank. Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, Forestry and Beekeeping Division & Tanzania Forest Conservation and Management Project (TFCMP). 56 p. Usambara Mountains: historical perspective and future prospects. Pp. 97-102. In Price,
Verchot, L. V., Albiecht, A., Kandji, S., Noordwijk M. V., Tomich T., Ong C., Mackensen J., Bantilan C., Anupama K. V., Palm, C., 2007. “Climate change linking adaptation and mitigation through agroforestry”, Mitig Adapt Strat Global change., vol.12, pp. 901-918.
Zomer, RJ, Trabucco, A., Coe, R., Place F., 2009. Trees on Farm: Analysis of Global Extent and Geographical Patterns of Agroforestry. ICRAF Working Paper no. 89. Nairobi, Kenya: World Agroforestry Centre.
Kimaro A., Mpanda M., Rioux J., Aynekulu E., Shaba S., Thiong’o M., Mutuo P., Abwanda S., Shepherd K., Neufeldt H., Rosenstock T. (2015) Is conservation agriculture climate-smart’ for maize farmers in the highlands of Tanzania? Nutr Cycl. Agroecosyst. DOI 10.1007/s 10705-015-9711-8.
Sen PK. Estimates of the regression coefficient based on Kendall’s tau; 1968.
Browse journals by subject